Alcohol and tobacco addiction are considered as risk factors for the development of various diseases, including, inter alia, diseases of the vital organs and mental disorders.
A group of scientists from different countries under the leadership of Darsana Lou (Dajiang Liu) from the University of Pennsylvania and Scott Vries (Scott Vrieze) at the University of Minnesota used data from 23andMe research projects and the Norwegian HUNT.
The researchers found 566 genetic variants that may be associated with tobacco and alcohol dependence, 406 loci of the human genome. Reports Hvilya.
To do this, they analyzed the genetic material and pattern of alcohol and tobacco consumption by more than 1.2 million people. For each of the following tests, depending on the required data, the sampling was different (the minimum size is 350 thousand people).
Study participants were divided into phenotypes depending on several factors: age of onset of Smoking, started if people regularly smoke at all, the number of cigarettes a day, did man, and for alcohol — how many drinks per week a person drinks.
Among the genes, which scientists have linked with alcohol and tobacco dependence, was PDE4B, phosphodiesterase 4B regulating the activity connected with the development of various mental disorders, DRD2, which regulates dopaminergic D2 receptor, as well as ADH1B, which is responsible for metabolism of alcohol.
As experts noted, the phenotypic differences in alcohol consumption and tobacco use are closely linked with the genetic differences that regulate the nicotinic, dopaminergic and glutamate receptors.
The scientists also found genetic differences in the studied phenotypes with other factors available in the sample. It was found that Smoking is associated with type II diabetes, schizophrenia, depression, presence of secondary and higher education and many other factors.
With the phenotype of alcohol consumption was associated much less factors: however, the authors clarify that this does not mean that the addiction alcohol causes more harm to the body than Smoking.
The researchers believe that their work will further help to conduct more qualitative research not only the causes of alcohol, nicotine and other addictions, but studies on the relationships between dependency and development of various diseases and conditions, and also external factors.
Recall that perfectionism is a risk factor for mental disorders, in particular anxiety and depression, eating disorders and alcoholism.
As reported by the portal “Znayu” scientists at Indiana University found that beer is the most highly addictive of all alcoholic drinks.
Also “Znayu” I wrote, geneticists have described how alcohol causes addiction.